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CIA THEN

Significance

  1. After the war, to better protect the United States, we needed a better way to collect intelligence.
  2. In 1947 Congress passed the National Security Act, which formed the Central Intelligence Agency. Truman signed it into law, and I think this action was one of the most important during his presidency. -->It ensured that the President, his Cabinet, and the National Security Council would get the best information possible!
  3. Helped ease the spreading fear of communism!
  4. This is overall significant because the creation of the CIA was the foundation to how the the US protects its people today!

Central Intelligence Agency otherwise known as the CIA

  • The Central Intelligence Agency was created in 1947 with the signing of the National Security Act by President Harry S. Truman.
  • The Memorial Wall on the left consists of 90 stars which stand as a memorial to those CIA officers who have made the ultimate sacrifice to protect our country.
  • The man on the right is a Statue of Major General William J. Donovan --> he was the head of the OSS, and the forerunner to the CIA --> he was also the "Father of Modern American Intelligence Gathering."

Espionage

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: the practice of spying or using spies to obtain information about the plans and activities especially of a foreign government or a competing company.
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Julius and Ethel Rosenberg



OSS (Office of Strategic Services)

  • June 13, 1942 --> President Franklin D. Roosevelt signed a military order establishing the Office of Strategic Services.
  • The OSS collected and analyzed strategic information.
  • After World War II, however, the OSS was abolished. It's functions were transferred to the State and War Departments.
  • October 1, 1945 President Harry S. Truman’s Executive Order 9621 abolished the OSS and transfers its functions to the State and War Departments.
  • During the War, the OSS supplied policy makers with essential facts and intelligence estimates.
  • The OSS often played an important role in directly aiding military campaigns.
  • Never received complete jurisdiction over all foreign intelligence activities.

National Security Act of 1947 (18 September 1947)

  • It reorganized the leadership of the military following World War II, formalizing a Department of Defense (DOD) with a Secretary of Defense (SECDEF) that reports directly to the Commander-in-Chief.
  • It also "charged the CIA with coordinating the nation’s intelligence activities and correlating, evaluating and disseminating intelligence affecting national security." --> simply meaning the CIA would do anything in its power to protect national security against other intelligences.
  • The National Security Act also mandated a major reorganization of the foreign policy.
  • In addition, it made the Director of Central Intelligence (DCI) responsible for protecting intelligence sources and methods.
  • It created the National Security Council as well.
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Truman signing the National Security Act of 1947



NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL

  • The (NSC) is the President's principal forum for considering national security and foreign policy matters --> along with his senior national security advisors and cabinet officials.
  • It's function has been to advise and assist the President on national security and foreign policies.
  • Serves as the President's principal arm for coordinating these policies among various government agencies.
  • As part of the Reorganization Plan in 1949, the Council was placed in the Executive Office of the President.

Executive Order 9621

  • Executive Order 9621
  • In sum, the Executive Order 9621 was the termination of the Office of Strategic Services and the transferred power to the State and War Departments.

CIA DURING the 1960's

Bay of Pigs

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  • In 1959, Fidel Castro came to power in an armed revolt that overthrew Cuban dictator Fulgencio Batista. The U.S. government distrusted Castro and was wary of his relationship with Nikita Khrushchev, the leader of the Soviet Union.
  • The CIA set up training camps in Guatemala, by November a small army for an assault landing and guerilla warfare was trained.
  • José Miró Cardona led the anti-Castro Cuban exiles in the United States.
  • February 1961, President Kennedy authorized the invasion plan.
  • The Plan --> "The original invasion plan called for two air strikes against Cuban air bases. A 1,400-man invasion force would go under cover of darkness and launch a surprise attack. Paratroopers dropped in advance of the invasion to disrupt transportation and repel Cuban forces. Also, a smaller force would land on the east coast of Cuba to create confusion."
  • The Invasion -->April 15, 1961, the CIA had used obsolete World War II B-26 bombers, and painted them to look like Cuban air force planes. The bombers missed many of their targets and left most of Castro's air force intact.
  • On April 17, the Cuban-exile invasion force (Brigade 2506), landed at beaches along the Bay of Pigs --> Cuban planes sank two escort ships, and destroyed half of the exile's air support. Bad weather hampered the ground force -->had to work with soggy equipment and insufficient ammunition.
  • The Counterattack -->Castro ordered roughly 20,000 troops to advance toward the beach, and the Cuban air force continued to control the skies. --> Some exiles escaped while the rest were killed or rounded up and imprisoned by Castro's forces.
  • The Aftermath -->The brigade prisoners remained in captivity for 20 months, as the United States negotiated a deal with Castro. -->Castro eventually settled on $53 million worth of baby food and medicine in exchange for the prisoners.
  • The Bay of Pigs had a lasting impact on the Kennedy administration --> to make up for the failed invasion, the administration initiated Operation Mongoose—a plan to sabotage and destabilize the Cuban government and economy -->included the possibility of assassinating Castro.

Cuban Missile Crisis

  • September 1962, U-2 spy planes discovered that the Soviet Union was building surface-to-air missile (SAM) launch sites.
  • There was an increase in the number of Soviet ships arriving in Cuba which the United States government feared were carrying new supplies of weapons.



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Cuban Missile Crisis
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CIA TODAY


  • The Director of the Central Intelligence Agency (D/CIA) is nominated by the president with the advice and consent of the Senate. The Director manages the operations, personnel, and budget of the Central Intelligence Agency.
  • "CIA is directed to study an intelligence issue—such as what activities terrorist organizations are planning, or how countries that have biological or chemical weapons plan to use these weapons—then we look for a way to collect information about the problem."
  • The 1980 Intelligence Oversight Act charged the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence (SSCI) and the House Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence (HPSCI) with authorizing the programs of the intelligence agencies and overseeing their activities.





  • OSAMA BIN LADEN IS DEAD! JUSTICE IS SERVED TO ALL OF THOSE WHO LOST THEIR LIVES 9/11!!
  • According to the Boston Globe, US special operations forces killed Osama bin Laden in Pakistan on May 1st, 2011.
  • "Ending a massive military manhunt that began a decade ago after the Al Qaeda leader directed the largest terrorist attack in US history".
  • Authorities confirmed his identity by comparing tissue with DNA from his sister. Her DNA was stored at an unnamed Boston hospital.


Impacts

  1. The CIA helped the US learn about other countries advancements in nuclear weapons. (U-2 Spy Planes)
  2. Helped stop the spread of communism.
  3. Helped to protect the American people from foreign invasions.
  4. Took the fear out of everyday life after the Cold War (not entirely 100%).

Works Cited

CIA. , Feb 04, 2011. Web. 2 May 2011. <https://www.cia.gov/index.html>.

"Cuban Missile Crisis." Cuban Missile Crisis. Spartacus Educational, n.d. Web. 1 May 2011. <http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/COLDcubanmissile.htm>.

Gerdes, Louise. Espionage and Intelligence Gathering. 1st. 17 vols. Farmington Hills, MI: Greenhaven Press, 2004. 13-16, 114-115. Print.

Obama, Barrack. "National Security Council - The White House." National Security Council. The White House, 2010. Web. 1 May 2011. <http://www.whitehouse.gov/administration/eop/nsc/>.

Pike, John. "CIA- History." CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY. Steven Aftergood, September 23, 1996. Web. 1 May 2011. http://www.fas.org/irp/cia/ciahist.htm.

Slack, Donovan . "Bin Laden Dead." Bin Laden Dead (2011): n. pag. Web. 2 May 2011. <http://www.boston.com/news/nation/washington/articles/2011/05/02/us_forces_kill_bin_laden_in_firefight_in_pakistan/?page=full>.

Stone, Ralph. "Cuba And The Bay Of Pigs Invasion April 20, 1961." John F. Kennedy. 1st. Dobbs Ferry, New York: Oceana Publications, Inc., 1971. Print.

"The Bay of Pigs." The Bay of Pigs. JOHN F. KENNEDY PRESIDENTIAL LIBRARY AND MUSEUM, n.d. Web. 1 May 2011. <http://www.jfklibrary.org/JFK/JFK-in-History/The-Bay-of-Pigs.aspx>.